Saturday, October 13, 2012

Windows 8 Crack Activation

Windows 8 Crack Activation

The final RTM version of Windows 8 has been cracked. Windows 8 activation can be done through KMS activation hack which has previously been used to activate Windows Vista and Windows 7 has been proven to work on Windows 8 too, although only on installations of volume licensing channel.

KMS activation crack had not been popularly used in the past to activate Windows Vista and Windows 7 as it’s outshone by OEM activation hack which performs instant one-time Windows activation offline without the need to setup any additional host.

The OA3.0 in where all OEM computers running Windows 8 now required online activation has made OEM activation much harder to hack, at least until actual machines preinstalled with Windows 8 shipped.

The final RTM version of Windows 8 has been cracked. Windows 8 activation can be done through KMS activation hack which has previously been used to activate Windows Vista and Windows 7 has been proven to work on Windows 8 too, although only on installations of volume licensing channel.

KMS activation crack had not been popularly used in the past to activate Windows Vista and Windows 7 as it’s outshone by OEM activation hack which performs instant one-time Windows activation offline without the need to setup any additional host. 

The OA3.0 in where all OEM computers running Windows 8 now required online activation has made OEM activation much harder to hack, at least until actual machines preinstalled with Windows 8 shipped.

Thursday, October 11, 2012

PRI Line & advantages and limitations of PRI circuits

 PRI Line & advantages and limitations of PRI circuits

This article explains what a PRI line is, what are the benefits of having PRI lines for the telephony requirements of an organization, and the dis-advantages of a PRI line.

What is a PRI line?

There is only one line physically terminating on the customer PBX but still a PRI line can receive/send 30 calls simultaneously! A PRI line is end to end digital circuit.
A PRI (Primary Rate Interface) line is a form of ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) line which is a telecommunication standard that enables traditional phone lines to carry voice, data and video traffic, among others.
A PRI circuit consists of two pairs of copper lines terminating on a modem from a service provider premises to the customer premises. It uses multiplexing/de-multiplexing techniques to carry more than one channel in a single circuit. There are two common forms of PRI lines – E1 (which carry 30 channels in the two pairs of copper lines, common in Europe, India) and T1 (which carry 23/24 channels in the two pairs of copper lines, common in United States).
Each channel in a PRI line provides 64 Kbps for data transmission.
A PRI line can connect to both Analog/Mixed EPABX systems and also the newer IP PBX systems. A PRI Card / Interface might be required to terminate the PRI circuit on the PBX.
A PRI line can also be used to connect two PBX systems thereby providing 30 channels between them for interoperability.

Advantages of PRI Lines:

If thirty separate analog trunks are taken instead of one PRI line,

The cost of terminating all the thirty analog trunk lines becomes higher than terminating one PRI line.
There would be thirty rentals to be paid instead of one consolidated lower rental for a PRI line.
Some analog trunks might be used more (uneven distribution of calls) and some lines may not have even crossed the free calls limit.
Terminating 30 analog trunks in a PBX also requires more free slots/cards than the one slot usually occupied by one or even two PRI trunk cards.
Direct Inward Dialing: For each PRI line, the service provider would provide more around 100-500 numbers which can be used by outsiders to call the extension directly, instead of having to go through the PBX Auto-attendant.
Caller ID: Since all the extensions have their own number, this unique number will be displayed in the phones that they are calling to. Some call centre applications are based on the unique caller ID number for differentiation of services.
It is possible to offer both voice and data in the PRI line. Some service providers have dynamic offerings where data is transmitted in all the channels that are free (not occupied by voice) at that given point of time.
Call hunting (Where the call lands in any channel that is free, instead of the called number specifically – For example, if there is one board number but a number of people are calling in at the same time and still a channel is allocated to them .With analog lines, if one number is busy, they need to call in another number manually) is possible by default with a PRI connection, but for the analog trunks this facility needs to be extended by the service provider and enabled on the PBX, involving additional cost at times.
PRI lines can be used for voice connectivity, data connectivity, video conferencing, faxing, and all the above can be done simultaneously too (on different channels).
PRI lines are end-to-end digital lines and hence the clarity is much better than analog trunk lines.
Since they are digital lines, PRI lines are more reliable and trouble shooting is also easier with them. They are mostly on a fiber core ring and hence there is some redundancy.
It is harder to tap into digital lines and listen to the conversations.
There are flexible billing options available with most of the PRI service providers. The billing can be centralized or distributed (department wise, etc).
PRI lines take lesser time to establish calls then analog trunk lines.
Some service providers offer flexible plans where instead of the full 30 channels, they provide and charge for only 20 channels etc. This makes PRI lines more economical for smaller companies.

Dis-advantages of PRI lines:

A PRI line is economical only if the minimum rental charged by the service provider for a PRI line is more than the average value of calls with analog trunk lines every month in an organization. Otherwise, the usage may not even cross the free call value provided by the service provider for a PRI line.
A PRI line is not so economical for long distance/ international calling. An ITSP or SIP trunk service provider who takes the calls over the internet might charge much lesser for international long distance calls.
Inter branch communication between the branches is not free of cost with PRI lines (Some PRI service providers provide this facility, but all your branches may need to have PRI lines from the same service provider and there also might be a minimum revenue commitment for the same). With VOIP systems, inter-branch communication can be done over internet/ leased lines hence reducing the cost drastically.
The cost of a single PRI card to connect to your EPABX/ IP PBX is still very high. Most of these cards are proprietary, meaning you can buy them only from your EPABX vendor.

Thursday, September 27, 2012


Free tool, called Delete Empty, that searches a specified path for empty folders and empty files (files of size zero) and deletes them, deepest paths first.The easiest way to do this is to shift-right-click on the folder containing the DelEmpty.exe file and select Open command window here from the popup menu.

A command line window opens directly to the folder containing the Delete Empty executable.
The format for the Delete Empty command is as follows:
DelEmpty.exe OPTIONS {PATH}

The following OPTIONS are available for use in the command:

-f delete files of size zero
-d delete empty directories
-v verbose mode
-c confirm mode (Shows what was deleted)
-s includes sub-directories
-l list what would be deleted (lowercase L – does not actually delete the empty             folders or empty files)
-y delete without (y/n) prompt

If you want Delete Empty to prompt you before deleting each empty directory and empty sub-directory, add the -y option to the command, as follows.

DelEmpty.exe -d -s -y c:\mydata

To delete all the empty files, in addition to the empty directories and empty sub-directories, add the -f option to the command.
DelEmpty.exe -d -s -f c:\mydata

If you want to check what directories and files would be deleted before actually deleting them, use the -l (lowercase L) option. For example, the following command will show you what directories, sub-directories and files will be deleted in the mydata directory.
DelEmpty.exe -d -s -f -l c:\mydata

You can also choose to have Delete Empty show you what has been deleted. To do this, add the -c option to the command.
DelEmpty.exe -d -s -f -c -y c:\mydata

To close the command window, type “exit” (without the quotes) on the command line and press Enter.

Download Delete Empty from The program is available in the Free Utilities section.
This handy free tool should help you keep your hard drive free of extraneous directories and files. However, be careful when using the Delete Empty tool. Some programs may need empty folders to run correctly, so be sure not to delete anything you are not sure of.

Sunday, August 12, 2012

Hidden File View & Hosts file Editing in Windows Vista,7


1.Open MY COMPUTER then Press the ALT key while in Explorer to bring up the File menu. Click on Tools and then Folder Options.

2.Click on the View tab and then click on the Show hidden files, folders, and drives radio button under Hidden files and folders.

The path to the Hosts file in Windows 7,Vista :




Now navigate to the directory above and open the hosts file and make your changes.

NOTE: This method for editing the Hosts file will not work. You will get a message saying you do not have permission to save in this location.

In order to edit it, you have to click on Start, type in Notepad and then right-click on Notepad and choose Run as Administrator.

In Notepad goto File->Open-> C:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\ folder again and make sure to choose all files for File Types otherwise you won’t see the Hosts file.

Make your changes to the Hosts file and click File and Save to save all changes. 

Wednesday, August 8, 2012


  1. Click the spanner icon on the browser toolbar.
  2. Select Bookmark manager.
  3. Click the Organize menu in the manager.
  4. Select Export bookmarks.
  5. Choose a location in which you want your exported file to be saved, then click Save.
  6. Google Chrome will export your bookmarks as a HTML file.
  7. Import bookmarks from Firefox or Internet Explorer

This feature isn't available on Chrome OS.
  1. Click the spanner icon Wrench Menu on the browser toolbar.  
  2. Select Bookmarks.
  3.  Select Import Bookmarks and Settings.
  4. Select the application that contains the settings you'd like to import.
  5. Make sure that only the checkboxes for items you want to import are selected.


  1. Export bookmarks from any browser as a HTML file and save the file to your computer. 
  2. Click the spanner icon on the browser toolbar in Google Chrome. 
  3. Select Bookmark manager. 
  4. Click the Organize menu in the manager. 
  5. Select Import bookmarks. 
  6. Open your saved HTML file.

Sunday, August 5, 2012



To create a new VM in the VMware server console. You do this by logging in to the VMware Server Web Interface and creating a new VM by clicking the "Create Virtual Machine" link in the "Commands" action pane:

Give your new Virtual Machine a name, select your data store and click "next".

I downloaded the 64bit ISO of Windows 7 so I selected the 64bit version.

Windows 7 will install fine with 512MB, and it's even pretty usable after installation.

Create a new virtual disk and determine how much disk space you want to allocate to the Windows 7 installation. I created a 16GB partition

On the next screen, add a Network Adapter and then select "Network Connection: Bridge" in the Network Properties Page.

Next you will need the previously downloaded Windows 7 ISO file. In the CD/DVD drive dialogue box click on "Use an ISO Image" and browse to the ISO file and mount it as a CD-ROM. Unless you have set up a predefined data store for ISO files, you will need to copy the ISO into the location of your Virtual Machines (eg. your default data store) before you can browse to it.

Don't add a Floppy Drive, you don't need one.

I didn't add a USB Controller in my particular setup, but you can easily include one if you want to be able to connect to USB resources on your host machine, inside the guest. If you decide you don't need one now, don't worry. You can always add one later if you wish.

Review your settings and click on finish.

That's the finale of the Virtual Machine setup wizard. Now power on your newly created VM and go to the "console" tab on the top. You should be greeted with the Windows 7 Installer.

Go through the installer as you normally would on a physical machine, including accepting the EULA. Luckily the Windows 7 installed doesn't ask that many questions during install so it won't take that long. On my test computer the installation took about 30 minutes, but the actual time it takes depends on the hardware you run VMware Server on.

Now that the installation has finished you are almost ready to start using your virtual Windows 7 instance. I would advise that you install VMware Tools immediately though.

VMware Tools is a set of essential tools and drivers that will make your virtual experience much better, and in particular it will enable network connectivity in your Windows 7 install.

                          A couple of other great side-effects of installing the tools are that you will get much improved video performance, copy and paste between your host and guest as well as mouse synchronization.

                       Installation is very easy, all you have to do is to navigate to VMware Server Console again, find your Windows 7 installation and click on the "Install VMware Tools" option. This will mount a virtual CD-Rom inside your Windows 7 installation and start the autorun procedure.

                           Switch to your Windows 7 console again and you should be able to start the setup procedure.  Accept the default installation options, and after a quick reboot your should be ready to go.

                              Your virtualized Windows 7 install is now finished, and you should be able to use it as if it were installed on a physical machine. As far as the user experience goes, it does depend on what kind of resources you have available, but there is one part of Windows 7 you will not be able to experience by using VMware Server.  

Download Windows 7 64Bit Beta: 


Saturday, August 4, 2012

Client OS Windows Vista Installation on VMWare Server


Microsoft Windows Vista Enterprise in an ISO file
VMware Server 1.0
Desktop PC with 2GB of RAM

Creating the Virtual Machine:

Before installation, you must create a virtual machine inside VMware to house the Vista system. To do this, I went to File->New->Virtual Machine. I clicked Next and took the default of Typical. I found that VMware does now have an option for Vista and Vista x64 as valid "machine types". I selected Vista from the drop down of machine type, like this:

From here, I clicked Next, typed a name for my new Vista Test machine (called "Vista Test", how original). I clicked Next and Next again to select bridging as my network connection.

Next, I took the default to allocate 16GB of disk space for the guest OS but chose not to allocate it now. This may cause some performance issues in the long run but is best for my disk space.

One more reason that this is a good time to use VMware with Vista is that the VMware Tools are available for the Vista operating system. Make sure that you load these VMware tools after you get Vista up and running.

Then, I clicked Finish.

Booting the Vista Install CD:
                                                To boot the ISO CD, I double clicked the CDROM drive and added the Vista ISO file as the virtual CDROM drive. Of course, you could also boot a physical Vista installation CDROM and map VMware to the CD Drive. In my case, I made sure that my virtual CD would be connected at startup, like this:

Next, I powered on the virtual machine, which was configured like this:

Once booted from the Vista install CD, you can choose your language, click Next, then, clickInstall Now.

Vista/VMware CD Driver Issue:
Immediately after clicking Install Now, I received this error:

I'm not saying that everyone will receive it but I did. It is discussed in the VMware forum at this link: Somehow, what this error is saying is that Vista recognized the CDROM drive when it booted from it and began the install but, at this point, it can't seem to recognize it any longer. I don't understand the cause for this but I have the solution. I read that other users have complained of this same error when using VMware ESX Server.
To get around this, you need to provide the drivers for the CDROM drive. I did this using a virtual floppy file (FLP). Here is a link to download my virtual floppy file:

Mitsumi CD-Rom Drivers:

To mount the floppy, go to the VM menu on the toolbar and click on Settings. Then click the floppy drive. Select the Virtual Floppy and enter the path to the FLP file. Make sure it isConnected and click OK.

Back in Vista, browse to find the drivers on the A: drive and click OK.

Next, you will see that you are installing the new driver, like this:

Click Next. From this point on, the installation of Vista will be as normal. (You can follow our article Install Windows Vista if you need help)
When you are done with the complete process, you should see your Vista screen inside VMware Server like this:

Friday, August 3, 2012


Windows Server 2008 R2 Full Installation

Windows Server 2008 R2 is the latest version of Microsoft’s Windows Server operating system. Microsoft tries their best to make each task as simple as possible, and Server 2008 R2 is a shining example of that goal in action. We’re going to take you through a basic install and show you just how easy it is.

A Basic Install

After booting up from your install disk, you will arrive at a language and preferences screen. Once you have chosen those options, you get to the Operating System Selection page. Depending on your license and the purpose of your server, there are a variety of options to choose from. For our purpose today, we are going to choose the Enterprise (Full Installation) version.

We get to read the standard End User License Agreement.

Since we’re doing a base install and not an upgrade, so we choose the Custom (advanced) option.

We’ve got a blank 24 GB disk, so we’re just going to install it there. If you want to create a partition out of the available drive space or reformat a drive, then choose Drive options (advanced).

Windows will take a little while with your install, and reboot a few times.

Once the install is finished, we’re prompted to change our password before logging in.

Windows requires that you have a strong password, seven characters long with at least three of the four following: uppercase letter, lowercase letter, numeral, or symbol. You’ll want to make sure you write it down somewhere for now, because if you forget it later, the entire install will have to be re-done.

The Initial Configuration Tasks window pops up as soon as you logon. You could also type in Oobe.exe in the Command Prompt to arrive here.

One of the first things we want to correct is the time, so choose Set time zone. Make sure that you set the time zone first, because the the date and time will shift after.

IP Configuration:

Next we want to choose Configure Networking. The first server installed in a network needs to be a Domain Controller, and since they require a static IP, we are going to need to set one up now. Double-click on Local Area Connection, and once the information box pops up, click on Properties .

Click on Internet Protocol Version 4 in the Networking box, then click Properties. Change the radial button to Use the following IP address: and then enter the settings for your specific server and network IP addresses. When you’re finished, click OK to save those settings.